Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Caribian Crisis Essays - CubaUnited States Relations, Fidel Castro

Caribian Crisis Essays - CubaUnited States Relations, Fidel Castro Caribian Crisis Outline A. Introduction 1. Topic 2. Topic question - Give evidence - Give examples of other ideas 3. Thesis B. Batista/Castro Government 1. Before Castros reign - conservative at first - turned communist 2. USSR stayed ally with Castro C. U-2 Spy Plane Incident 1. Francis Gary Powers - USAs excuse - 1958 incident 2. Note to the US government - air space violation - Cuba 90 miles off the cost of Florida 3. Rejection of open skies proposal - Eisenhower left for the summit conference - no more U2 flights over the USSR 4. Powers tried and convicted of espionage by the supreme court of the USSR - Castro seized all American-owned properties - oil refineries - sugar mills - electric utilities - USA very angry D. Summary of The Inspector General's Survey of The Cuban Operation 1. Freedom of Information Act to the National Security Archives -group that publishes declassified government documents -the porpoise of document 2. A Program of Covert Action Against the Castro Regime - Cuban exile organization - propaganda offense - clandestine intelligence - paramilitary force E. The CIA's Plan of Invasion 1. The bay of Pigs - Cuban exile organization - propaganda offense - clandestine intelligence - paramilitary force 2. Budget approved - Political action - propaganda - paramilitary - intelligence collection F. What Went Wrong In The Bay of Pigs Invasion 1. The actual Plan 2. The Inspector Generals conclusions - The Central Intelligence Agency - failures with the project and agency G. What Actually Happened In The Bay of Pigs Invasion H. Conclusion The invasion at the Bay of Pigs has raised many questions and many interesting things have come out of it. What people want to know is, why it happened, or what caused it, but the most important question that is not commonly asked is what was the main affect of the invasion? Some say that the affects are not many. People believed for a while that there was no way that the united states could suffer from the invasion on Cuba, they were wrong. The main affect was that Cuban leaders feared another direct US invasion, and so they allowed the USSR to place nuclear missiles in Cuba, aimed at the United States, this is called the Cuban Missile Crisis. The Soviet Union offered military aid to Cuba, and Cuba agreed to let the Soviet Union send missiles and materials to build launch sites. In October 1962, the United States learned that Cuba had nuclear missiles in place that could be launched toward American cities. President John F. Kennedy ordered a naval blockade to halt the further shipment of arms. He demanded that the Soviet Union remove all missiles from the island and dismantle the remaining missile bases. For several days, the world stood on the brink of nuclear war. Finally, the Soviet Union removed the weapons under protest from Castro. The Soviet action came after Kennedy privately agreed not to invade Cuba. Kennedy also agreed to remove U.S. nuclear missiles from Turkey, which the Soviets considered to be a threat. All because of the invasion on Cuba at the Bay of Pigs. Fulgencio Batista y Zaldvar became the dictator of Cuba in 1952. The United States had been kind to Batista. Shortly after, Fidel Castro, became the leader of an underground antigovernment group. After leading several failed uprisings, and being arrested for leading those revolts, Castro finally lead a successful rebellion against Batista. In 1959, Castro became the Premier. At first, Castro was very conservative, but after he realized how much power he had gained, he started abusing it, being very hostile to both the Cuban people, and the United States. The United States, who had been very good to Cuba, but the U.S. started to get angry when, in 1960, Castro seized American oil refineries, sugar mills, and electric utilities. In the early 60s, he also started to welcome communism and formed close ties with the USSR. In 1959, when Castro became premier, the Central Intelligence Agency, (CIA) started planning an invasion near Guantnamo Bay, a US naval base in Cuba, in the Bay of Pigs, in southern Cuba. The CIA set up a small sub-organization with the sole purpose of planning the invasion. Despite the propaganda, intelligence planning, counter intelligence planning, and paramilitary planning, the mission still failed. In February 1962, the Inspector General wrote a document called The Inspector General's Survey of the Cuban Operation. This was deemed top secret until 1997. Inside it tells many reasons for the failure. Why didn't the CIA think of these problems ahead of time? Before Castro's reign over Cuba, a man named Fulgencio Batista y Zaldvar was the Premier from 1952 to

Sunday, February 23, 2020

Data Fusion and Data Mining Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Data Fusion and Data Mining - Research Paper Example Every day millions of data are being transmitted by the use of local area networks and the Internet. Aware of the voluminous demand for data storage, computer manufacturing firms regularly innovate file storage devices. They introduce new and more "intelligent" devices and gadgets to cope with this ever-escalating demand for storing and retrieving data.  Despite their success in solving the data storage problem, companies are still hoping to use technologies that will provide them clear information on what really is going on in their businesses. Storing and retrieving myriad chunks of data are not enough to solve pressing business problems. Businessmen need useful information out of these.  Owning data warehouses have partially solved this problem. A data warehouse is used to consolidate data found in different databases. This makes millions of data easily retrieved, interpreted, sorted and accessible by analysts. Though this device largely helps analysts, sorting and storing dat a are not enough to make most out of these data. They still cannot provide us with a clear picture of what is really going on in the firm and in the market (Alexander, n.d.).  Turning numerous data into significant information is the aim of one of the latest technological breakthroughs in computers known as data fusion and data mining. These technologies enable firms to automatically search millions of data that they receive every day "for patterns using tools such as classification, association rule mining, clustering, etc. (Data Mining, 2007)." Data fusion is the method of integrating "diverse data into a single, coherent representation of the tactical, operational or strategic situation (Cyr, 2006)." We can say that data fusion is the first step in data mining. To find patterns, one should consolidate huge chunks of data to find out their similarities. This is exactly what data fusion is doing. Data mining divulges strategically hidden patterns found in huge amounts of data usi ng high-end data analysis methods. It discovers new knowledge instead of testing assumptions that are suggested by users, which are being used by other business intelligence technologies (Sentient Information Systems, n.d.). It is an automated technology that allows exploration, analysis, and visualization of data of very large databases. Having the power to extract novel, implicit and actionable knowledge from large datasets, data mining is used for the discovery of non-obvious and finding out information and knowledge that can develop business processes. Having powerful capabilities makes data mining a very useful tool in business. It is used in sales/marketing, customer retention, buyer behavior, costing, quality control, inventory, and fraud (Williams, Hegland, and Roberts 1998).

Friday, February 7, 2020

Business information system Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Business information system - Essay Example of data that would be captured; date of birth, the year that the student commenced and completed their high school education, the units and courses that were taken by the student, the co-curriculum activities that the students engaged in, sex of the student, academic performance, and their career goals. As stated earlier, the recruiters have set the parameters defining the qualities, which they require from the students. After gathering the above information from the recruits, they will process the data and come up with tangible information that would aid in the recruiting process (Arthur 27). The following are examples of information, which would be processed from the above data; the average age that students start their high school education, the average number of years that students attend high school, the common and least common units and courses that the students take, the common and least common co-curriculum activities that the students engaged in, the sex composition of students in high school, and the average academic performance of the students. In particular, the processed information is an advantage to the recruiters in that, it brings to the light, the features exhibited by the student recruits. The two initial processes; data collection and data processing, gives way to a third imperative process; inference by the recruiters. Before the data collection process, the recruiters had defined the threshold that the recruits had to surpass. However, after processing the information and making some inferences, the recruiters can come to the realization that the threshold was either too high or too low. For instance, the recruiters would infer that, either the students spend more or fewer years in high school contrary to what they had thought. In this regard, they will have to raise or lower the minimum age of admitting students to the university. Secondly, the recruiters may infer that, the units and courses that the students have taken in high school

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Carlos Villaluz Francisco Essay Example for Free

Carlos Villaluz Francisco Essay Carlos Villaluz Francisco, born in 1914, was the son of Felipe Francisco and Maria Villaluz of Angono, Rizal. Francisco studied at the University of the Philippines (UP) School of Fine Arts. Before the war, he did illustrations for the Tribune and La Vanguardia, and later, with Victorio Edades and Fermin Sanchez painted sets for the Manila Grand Opera House, and the Clover Theater. He was also a member of the Thirteen Moderns a group formed in 1938. After WWII, Francisco taught at the University of Santo Tomas, simultaneously working in film-making with Miguel conde, as the scriptwriter for Ghenghis Khan, Putol na Kampilan (Broken Sword) and Tatlong Labuyo, (Three Wild Roosters). He also designed costumes for Romeo at Julieta, (Romeo and Juliet) as well as Prinsipe Tenoso, (Prince Tenoso) Ibong Adarna, (Adarna Bird), Siete Infantes de Lara, and the Juan Tamad series. Francisco belonged to the first generation modernists who, with Edades and Galo B.  Ocampo, constituted the pioneering triumvirate which attempted to change the direction of Philippine art from the tenacious influence of the Amorsolo school in new and fresh idioms of visual expression. In the struggle for modern art, Francisco was one of the artists/protagonists in the center of the fray. His painting :Kaingin (Swidden), a modernist composition with strong design and rhythm, won him the first prize in the historic first national art exhibition of the Art Association of the Philippines (AAP) held at the National Museum in 1948. Francisco, along with Edades and Ocampo were commissioned to do a number of murals for lobbies and for private residences such as that of the architect Juan Nakpil. These murals featured stylized figures in flowing curvilinear lines: nymphs dancing or playing the flute, often against a background of tropical vegetation. Through these works, the artists contributed towards developing a Filipino imagery, drawing inspiration from the the customs and traditions of the Philippine people, as well as from familiar environments. In the quest for a Filipino modernist idiom, Francisco, who chose to be based in his fishing village of Agono, observed Philippine folk aesthetics and researched Philippine histon,, customs, and traditions. He arrived at an idiom which was both Filipino and Asian. Francisco employed bold folk colors, flowing rhythmic lines and decorative patterns often covering the entire field of the painting. He evoked the communal life of Philippine gatherings and celebrations. His images of women were drawn from mythology. uch as Mariang Makiling; from history and legend, such as Princesa Urduja; from customs of the past, such as the maiden carried on a hammock across the mountain in Antipolo; and from contemporary folk, such as the woman preparing fish for sinigang. Fisherfolk were among his favorite subjects since he lived in a fishing village. He showed his closeness to the folk in paintings such as the Camote Eaters, his last and unfinished work. Franciscos first important mural was done for the 1953 International Fair held in Manila. On the theme of 500 years of Philippine History, its scope covered the legendary origin of the Filipino with the first man and woman Malakas and Maganda springing from the primal bamboo, up to the administration of then incumbent President Elpidio Quirino. The mural was finely executed in wood by the Paete woodcarvers. Foreign visitors to the Fair were impressed by Franciscos mural which received full Newsweek, but local sentiment was lukewarm and the work was promptly carelessly disposed of after the fair. Franciscos major masterpiece is the mural for the Bulwagang Katipunan of the Manila City Hall, commissioned by Manila mayor Antonio Villegas during his administration. Filipino Struggles through History chronicles the history of Manila from the first great Rajahs of Tondo, the Spanish colonial period, Balagtas, Rizal and the Revolution of 1896, up to the American colonial period which becomes the history of the entire nation itself. In this work Francisco often integrated several historical episodes, in smaller scale, under one period. The episode groups, however, are not static but flow into each other by means of various linking devices, such as a winding river, flames branching out, or clouds coiling in spirals. The murals are marked by artistic vigor and inexhaustible inventiveness, a lively characterization of the numerous historical figures, and unifying all, a strong sense of design. Andres Bonifacios figure makes a compelling visual impact as he is shown forging forward, leading the Katpunero with their long bamboo spears, rifles, and bolos. Among the many dynanic scenes is the encounter between Limahong and the Spanish soldiers as they thrust their weapons at each other. A smaller mural is the Pageant of Commerce in four sections: two sides on the history of Philippine trade, from commercial relations with China and Arabia to the Manila Acapulco alleon trade: a section on the development of modern industry in factories, travel and communication; and the central one of a Filipino couple in native costume, the woman slipping a coin into a bamboo alkansya, with the spirit of commerce hovering above. Francisco also did the murals on the Life and Miracles of St Dominic for Santo Domingo Church, 1954; and the Stations of the Cross for Far Eastern University, 1956. He worked with Victorio Edades and Galo B.  Ocampo on the mural of Rising Philippines for the Capitol Theater and murals for the Golden Gate Exposition, the State Theater, the houses of Pres Manuel Quezon, Ernesto Rufino, and Vicente Rufino. Franciscos Kaingin won first prize in the 1948 painting competition of the Art Association of the Philippines. He received the Patnubav ng Sining at Kalinangan Award from the City of Manila in 1964. He was proclaimed National Artist in painting in 1973.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Andean/Incan People :: essays research papers

The Andean/Incan people The Andean/Incan people lived in the vast majority of the Andean Mountain ranges of Peru. They were mainly polytheistic and believed it was a series of gods who were responsible for providing the rain, maize, sun, etc. that was needed for daily survival.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Viracocha was the main and greatest god. He was held solely responsible for the creation of Earth, animals and man. He made men out of stone, replicated them and destroyed them according to his whim. Viracocha was considered he divine protector of the Incan rulers or â€Å"Incani’s†.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Inti, the Sun god was the head of the state cult whose worship was mandatory. Every year a special festival called Inti-Raymi was held in Inti’s and the suns honor. Animal sacrifices and ritual dances marked and were often the highlight of the celebration.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Daily prayers were addressed to Apu Illapu, the rain giver, who was responsible for sustaining the Incans food sources. His temples were set high on a mountain so in case there was a flood, the temple would not be destroyed. A flood signified Apu Illapu’s anger and meant a pilgrimage with human sacrifice was necessary to appease him.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Human sacrifice was not widely practices in the Incan religion as opposed to the Aztec religion where human sacrifices were the norm. Both the Incan and the Aztec believed that human sacrifice was a necessity to appease the gods. They felt there was no greater gift than giving your life to a god. Therefore, the sacrificial person as well as the god was honored. Festivals and daily prayers were often marked with dancing, singing and special prayers to the particular god of what they desired. Both fasting and feasting marked super special festivals.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Penitential rituals must be observed if a particular god is displeased. Murder as an act of war was not a punishable offense whereas murder as an act of vengeance was the gravest sin to be committed.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Birth, puberty, marriage and death were all times for special rituals and sacrifices. Therefore, the Andean people’s lives mainly revolved around their religion as, without the gods, they would have nothing. The Spaniards The Spanish conquerors and missionaries arrived upon the New World around 1492 but it took a few years for them to get acclimated to the people and area before they started the conversion of the natives. The Spaniards were staunch Christians and mainly Catholics, under the rule of the Spanish Catholic monarchy.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Blood Doping: Is it Rational and Ethical? Essay

You’re in the big race and your rival who you’ve been neck and neck with all year long somehow beats you by way more than usual. You ran one of the best races of your life and he somehow beat you and you don’t know how. Winning that race would have gotten a lot of opportunities from big colleges and instead of looking at you they’re looking instead, at your rival. How would you feel if you later learned the reason he was able to beat you was only because he started blood doping? Now imagine this happening at the professional level every day. Blood doping is unethical, unfair, unsafe, and needs to be regulated and removed completely from professional sports and recreational use. â€Å"Blood doping† is comparable to the administration of anabolic steroids and other drugs with the hope of improving athletic performance. Anabolic steroids have been considered unethical and have been banned from use in sports and blood doping, as it should, is banned as well. The athletes are placing themselves at risk for serious complications without medical benefit. Surely there is the idea that they will do anything to win, but is it worth it? Kathleen Sharp, in her article â€Å"A Drug to Quicken the Blood,† shares the negatives to EPO explaining, â€Å"Too many red blood cells can turn your blood to sludge and make the heart work overtime. The drug raised the risks of strokes, blood clots, and heart attacks. Even worse was that EPO could potentially multiply cancer cells† (Sharp). Look more:  satiric essays EPO has so many health risks and these athletes just ignore them because their goals are more focused on winning rather than their long-term health. There are many other athletes out there, who haven’t admitted to it, but are taking EPO without the public’s knowledge and some of the reason might be that they are taking it just to keep up with others. Imagine this scenario: One athlete starts doping and starts excelling above others, then other athletes will need to dope as well to keep pace with him. The fact that there can only be one winner means a lot of these athletes are doping and are not winning anything, which results in risking and damaging their health without having anything to show for it. Besides the health problems that EPO risks, users are making a conscious decision to use an illegal substance to attempt to benefit their performance and gain an edge on the competition. Much like steroids as mentioned before, EPO is not allowed to be used in sports. Using an illegal substance to try to gain an edge over the competition is unethical no matter what position you take on blood doping. If blood doping was allowed in sports, then the discussion would be different, but since it is not, using it is considered cheating which is unethical behavior and is not acceptable in competition of any kind. There’s a code of ethics that athletes are supposed to follow. They sign contracts and get paid millions of dollars to perform in their respective sport and it’s assumed they got to where they are because of their own talents, hard work, and without the aid of illegal performance enhancing drugs. I think it’s fair to make a general assumption that we expect professionals who are supposed to be the best at what they do to be able to do what they do without cheating. One article from â€Å"Men’s Fitness† shows a study done by Dutch researchers that looks at how much affect blood doping really has on â€Å"elite athletes.† Shawn Radcliffe, the author of â€Å"Study: EPO Blood Doping Useless for Elite Athletes,† explains how the study and found that, in spite of popular belief, there’s little evidence to show EPO can improve performance in cyclists, who are considered to be elite athletes. He describes how â€Å"elite athletes† already have such maximal oxygen uptake, that EPO will have little change in the transportation of oxygen and therefore have little effect on performance. So it’s very possible that Lance Armstrong may have lost his career and titles for nothing if he already had the highest VO2max, or maximal oxygen intake, levels he could which means EPO would have been doing nothing for him. If he and other cyclists raced without the use of EPO, it would make the sport fairer, and there would be no question of his integrity and no doubt in everyone’s minds that he is the greatest cyclist in the world. But since we know he used EPO, he lost everything and it all could have been avoided if the drug wasn’t used in the first place. Even if it was, there should have been tests done to prevent those who were blood doping from being able to race. My solution to the problem of blood doping is to have professional doctors hired by the sports federation (not the individual teams’ doctor) go to each team and test each athlete individually for steroid and EPO use. Especially for major events that are world renowned and watched like the Olympics, World Cup, Tour de France, and the Super bowl, all athletes in these events should be blood tested for steroids and EPO use. There should be no excuse not to since these athletes have a responsibility to be honest and clean for the better of the sport and to be fair to all athletes out there, especially to those who don’t use drugs. Make athletes afraid to dope and hopefully the fad will be eradicated soon enough. If sports can ban, test for, and regulate steroid use then I believe they should reasonably and feasibly be able to test athletes for EPO use as well. Now going back to that big race, but this time without any blood doping involved; you run the best race of your life and beat that rival you’ve been neck and neck with all year long. All those big colleges you’ve been looking at are now scouting you and all the opportunities are opening up. With all things fair, it’s those who train harder and better that deserve to win, not those who cheat and use performance enhancing drugs to do it. That’s why blood doping needs to be regulated and removed completely from professional sports and recreational use.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Diversity in Spain - 1147 Words

Abstract In this paper I focus on the different types of ethnic groups and diversity in Spain. I will explain the difficulties of each group and how each of them suffer. The participation rates, earnings, and employment differences among the group are also mentioned. Diversity in Spain Spain has a population of 39.5 million and is ethnically heterogeneous. While the overwhelming majority of the residents of Spain identify themselves as Spaniards, there are also number of distinct regionals and linguistic groups, and in recent years, an increasing number of foreign workers. Spaniard is a national cultural designation rather than a name for a specific ethnic group. Spain has a number of native populations. In addition to the†¦show more content†¦People from the United States number 16,000; Venezuelans 9,300; and Cuban 5,100. Africans in Spain primarily come from North African and West Africa. Unofficial figures suggest that in the 1900s there are over 100,000 Africans, most of them Moroccans. Of all the immigrant groups in Spain, it is the Africans who suffer the most discrimination. African immigrants and their advocates have argued that Foreigner Law of 1985 has been applied inconsistently. (Levinson, 1998). They are denied fair access to jobs and other no n-African groups are given preference in hiring. In Spain, racism and discrimination seems particularly relevant if we consider the strategic location of the country as the southern frontier of the European Union, and also if we keep in mind that Spain is one of the countries which have seen the greatest growth in immigrant population in the last few years. While Spain is, in general, free of ethnic strife, there is a major ongoing ethnic conflict. The primary ethnic conflict focus on the increasing number of immigrants coming from Africa, particularly Morocco, who are perceived as taking jobs that Spaniards want. The new African immigrants also include a large number who are undocumented. Part of Spain’s difficulty in dealing with foreignShow MoreRelatedSpain : Unique And Different From Other European Countries1681 Words   |  7 PagesSpain – Unique in Every Way Spain - what makes this unique country so special and so different from other European countries? Is it the people, the fascinating history, the beautiful, intrinsic structures, or the old world feel of the countryside and landscape that has not changed much over history? The answer to this last question can be answered simply as – YES. 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